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Original Article
6 (
2
); 39-43
doi:
10.25259/JISH_52_2022

Comparing the time modality chapter of the Therapeutic Pocket Book (TPB-German, TPB-Hempel and TPB-Allen) with Materia Medica Pura or chronic disease – An exploratory study

Department of Repertory, Shree Mahalaxmiji Mahila Homoeopathic Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
Department of Repertory, Dr. M. L. Dhawale Memorial Homoeopathic Institute, Palghar, Maharashtra, India
Corresponding author: Dr. Dhaval R. Akbari, Department of Repertory, Shree Mahalaxmiji Mahila Homoeopathic Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. dr.dhavalakbari@gmail.com
Licence
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, transform, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

How to cite this article: Akbari DR, Nigwekar AM. Comparing the time modality chapter of the Therapeutic Pocket Book (TPB-German, TPBHempel and TPB-Allen) with Materia Medica Pura or chronic disease – An exploratory study. J Intgr Stand Homoeopathy 2023;6:39-43.

Abstract

Objectives:

Boenninghausen’s generalisation, though time tested, has always been under criticism due to a lack of understanding and clarity of the underlying sound base. As well as, it is known that Dr. Allen has made certain changes in the therapeutic pocket book (TPB) in his edition. Therefore, to explore the possible bases of generalisation of time modality and to study changes done by Allen, this study has been taken up. (1) To study changes in the time modality section across the editions of the TPB. (2) To explore the method adopted by Boenninghausen to generalise time modality rubrics and grading of the remedies. (3) To identify changes in grades of medicines done by Dr. Allen and trace their justification.

Material and Methods:

We compared the rubrics representing time modality and marks allocated to remedies under the time modality section of TPB-German (TPB-G), TPB-Hempel (TPB-H) and TPB-Allen (TPB-A) in three remedies. We also compared the representation of time modalities in Materia Medica Pura or Chronic Disease with grades given to remedies in repertory. The original books (TPB-G and TPB-H) were sourced from the internet and their authenticity was assumed. The TPB-A, Materia Medica Pura and Chronic Disease were physically checked for representation.

Result:

Most of the instances of representation of time modality in the Materia Medica Pura or Chronic Disease matched the markings assigned by Boenninghausen in the original edition. In a few rubrics, Boenninghausen assigned higher markings, which did not match the representation in Materia Medica. Dr. Allen added some rubrics and changed the grades of the medicines.

Conclusion:

Boenninghausen assigned gradings in accordance with Materia Medica most of the time. In some rubrics, there is a mismatch in Materia Medica’s representation and grades of remedies in the time modality section of the repertory, which is assumed to be due to his clinical experience. Boenninghausen has generalised the rubrics and remedies under a particular time modality if it is present in most anatomical parts or systems in Materia Medica Pura or Chronic Disease, so it is justifiable to use the analogy. Dr. Allen’s addition of rubrics was a work in progress; the raises in markings in his repertory need critical study and should be applied with caution in clinical practice.

Keywords

Therapeutic pocket book
Time modality
Comparison
Materia medica and repertory

INTRODUCTION

Time, which is indicated using hours or phases, represents a quantifiable element in the cause-effect continuum. It is the most easily identified element by the patient while describing their ailments. Hence, the stalwarts of homoeopathy took note of this element in their literature and in drug proving. When it came to converting the philosophy of the stalwarts to the process of repertorisation, time in its various forms became a top-ranking symptom. Hence, time as a causative modality, aggravating or ameliorating modality, periodical return of complaints and as association became important when selecting the simillimum.[1-5]

Boenninghausen’s Therapeutic Pocket Book (TPB) is the benchmark for all the philosophical repertories in homoeopathy. True to the philosophy of the book, time modalities are not provided under every chapter or rubric, but as general modalities. Hence, the question arises about the logic based on which he generalised the specific element of time modality. How can it be used for all specific complaints? Can one generalise modalities the way they are represented in the TPB? Does it match the representation in Materia Medica? All the above questions lead to the present study wherein we compared the representation of time modalities in Materia Medica and TPB. Dr. Allen made additions to rubrics as well as to remedies and their grades in his edit. Hence, the study is focused only on the representation and an attempt to justify the presence of remedies/grades assigned by the various stalwarts who have edited the TPB with that of Materia Medica.[6-8]

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Three editions of TPB were chosen to compare the time modality sections: (1) TPB-German (TPB-G), published by Druck und Verlag der Coppenrath’ schen Buch- und Kunsthandlung, Munster in 1846, sourced from the internet, (2) TPB-Hempel (TPB-H) published by W. Radde, New York in 1847, sourced from the internet, and (3) TPB-Allen (TPB-A) published by B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd. New Delhi in 2009. The TPB-G and TPB-H were sourced from the internet. Their authenticity was accepted as is.

The rubrics and grades allocated to remedies under time modality section across editions of TPB were identified.

Physical verification of representation of time modalities in Materia Medica Pura published by B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi in 1999 or Chronic Disease published by B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi in 1995 with grades assigned to remedies in TPB. This was chosen as Materia Medica Pura or chronic disease was only available at the time of Boenninghausen.

The remedies chosen for this study were poly crests such as Pulsatilla, Natrum Mur and Sepia.

Pulsatilla was studied from Materia Medica Pura, while Natrum mur and Sepia were studied from chronic disease. The remedy and its markings against it in every rubric of the time modality section were noted. For example, the marking of Natrum mur in TPB-G, TPB-H and TPB-A has been noted under each rubric to identify any changes in that.

Then under the heading of the anatomical schema in the Materia Medica by Dr. Hahnemann, the presence of time modality was studied by going through every symptom of the prover and ‘*’ was placed under the appropriate rubric on the availability of that time modality. For example, from the mind section of Natrum mur, we found aggravation in forenoon, afternoon and night in two symptoms each; therefore, ‘*’ was placed twice ‘**.’ Likewise, if aggravation in the evening was noted in five symptoms, ‘*****’ were added [Table 2].

Finally, we compared the presence of time modality in Materia Medica and the marking given in the time modality chapter of TPB.[6-10]

Comparison of the rubrics representing time modality section of TPB-G, TPB-H and TPB-A

• Rubrics under time modality were checked and presence of that rubric was marked with ‘*.’[6-8]

Comparing representation of time modality across editions of TPB and representation of time modalities in Materia Medica with TPB[6-10]

Natrum mur, Pulsatilla and Sepia were studied. Natrum mur is described below.

Natrum mur: Chronic Disease [Refer Table 2]

RESULTS

Dr. Allen has added rubrics ‘during the day’ and ‘at noon’ in the time modality chapter of TPB. Whereas Dr. Hempel has kept the rubrics as it was in original German edition [Table 1] [Refer Table 3].

Table 1: Comparison of representation of rubrics.
Rubrics under time modality TPB-German TPB-Hempel TPB-Allen
During the day *
Morning * * *
Forenoon * * *
At noon *
Afternoon * * *
Evening * * *
Night * * *
Forepart of night * * *
After midnight * * *
Periodically * * *
Table 2: Natrum mur: Representation of time modality across editions of TPB and in Materia Medica.
During day Morning Forenoon At noon Afternoon Evening Night Forepart of night After midnight Periodically
Therapeutic pocket book
TPB-G 5 4 2 3 4 2 2 5
TPB-H 5 4 2 3 4 2 2 5
TPB-A 4 5 5 - 3 4 4 2 2 5
Materia Medica
Mind * ** ** ***** **
Head * * ** ***
Vertigo ******** ** ** ** ***
Eyes * ***** * **** *
Ears ** * *
Nose **
Face * * ** *
Mouth/throat *** ** **
Stomach ****** * ****** ******** *
Abdomen ******** ****** * ******
Urinary * **
Genitals **** * ** ****
Respiration *** ******* * ** ******
Chest/heart ** *
Locomotor ******** ********* *** ** **** ********* ***********
Sleep-dreams * * **** *
Fever ** * * *** ****** ***** *

TPB-G: TPB-German, TPB-H: TPB-Hempel, TPB-A: TPB-Allen

Table 3: Interpretation of markings given to Natrum mur, Pulsatilla and Sepia in TPB-G and TPB-A in the light of representation in Materia Medica.
Rubrics Remedies TPB-G TPB-H TPB-A Interpretation of markings by Boenninghausen based on materia medica representation Interpretation of markings by Allen based on materia medica representation
During day
Natrum mur 4 NO-NO SNI
Pulsatilla 4 NO-NO SNI
Sepia 5 NO-NO SNI
Morning
Natrum mur 5 5 5 Justifiable Justifiable
Pulsatilla 2 2 5
Sepia 4 4 5 Justifiable
Forenoon
Natrum mur 4 4 5 LR-NI LR-NI
Pulsatilla 2 2 2 Justifiable Justifiable
Sepia 5 5 5 LR-NI LR-NI
At noon
Natrum mur - NO-NO SNI
Pulsatilla - NO-NO SNI
Sepia - NO-NO SNI
Afternoon
Natrum mur 2 2 3 Justifiable
Pulsatilla 5 5 5 Justifiable Justifiable
Sepia 2 2 5 Justifiable LR-NI
Evening
Natrum mur 3 3 4 Justifiable
Pulsatilla 5 5 5 Justifiable Justifiable
Sepia 5 5 5 Justifiable Justifiable
Night
Natrum mur 4 4 4 Justifiable Justifiable
Pulsatilla 4 4 5 Justifiable Justifiable
Sepia 3 3 5 Justifiable LR-NI
Fore part of night
Natrum mur 2 2 2 LR-NI LR-NI
Pulsatilla 5 5 5 LR-NI LR-NI
Sepia 2 2 4 Justifiable LR-NI
After midnight
Natrum mur 2 2 2 LR-NI LR-NI
Pulsatilla 2 2 4 Justifiable LR-NI
Sepia 2 2 3 Justifiable LR-NI
Periodically
Natrum mur 5 5 5 NR-NI NR-NI
Pulsatilla 4 4 4 NR-NI NR-NI
Sepia 4 4 5 NR-NI NR-NI

SNI: Not able to identify exact source, NO-NO: No rubric as no direct representation in Materia Medica, ↓: A lower marking assigned compared to representation in Materia Medica, ↑: Justifiable raise in markings as frequently represented in Materia Medica, LR-NI: Less represented in Materia Medica although higher markings given. Need interpretation from Materia Medica and clinical verification. NR-NI: Not represented directly in Materia Medica although 5 marks has been retained. With interpretation of symptoms, it can be justified but not matching the markings raised. Need more interpretation of symptoms from Materia Medica and clinical verification. TPB-G: TPB-German, TPB-H: TPB-Hempel, TPB-A: TPB-Allen

DISCUSSION

Dr. Allen added the ‘during the day’ rubric and the remedies under the same heading, but the exact source of additions is not known, as there is less representation in Materia Medica Pura and Chronic Disease. On accessing the same rubric in TPB-A, only 12 remedies are seen, which suggests that the work was in progress and more remedies can be added under it by critically analysing the morning, forenoon, and afternoon rubrics as well as Materia Medica. Therefore, it is wise to use it with caution.

From this study, we cannot comment on how and why Dr. Allen added the ‘at noon’ rubric. On accessing this rubric in TPB-A, only five remedies are found, which suggests this rubric was under progress and requires a critical study of Materia Medica. Therefore, it is wise to use it with caution.

Boenninghausen did not add rubrics like ‘during the day’ and ‘at noon’ as there is no direct representation in Materia Medica Pura or chronic disease.

Dr. Hempel has neither added nor changed any rubric or the markings of any remedy; he simply translated them from German to English. Boenninghausen’s markings match the representation in the Materia Medica Pura or chronic disease in the original edition. In some rubrics, he gave higher markings that could be attributed to his clinical experience.

Boenninghausen has generalised time modalities that can be used with any complaints because he included only those remedies under that time modality, which covers most of the systems in Materia Medica. Furthermore, it justifies the principle of grand generalisation and analogy.

Dr. Allen retained the markings of each remedy under each rubric as it is or raised the markings. At some places, the rise in markings is justifiable whereas at many places it’s questionable. Therefore, it is to be used with caution and requires further study.

Remedies under the rubric ‘periodicity’ do not have direct representation in Materia Medica. On studying symptoms with interpretation under the light of periodicity, it can be justified, but the markings do not match the representation. This requires further study of symptoms from Materia Medica and clinical verification.

CONCLUSION

Grading assigned by Boenninghusen in TPB-G is in accordance with Materia Medica most times except few instances where mismatch is there, which is assumed to be due to his clinical experience. Generalization of the rubrics and remedies under particular time modalities by Boenninghausen is done if it is present in most anatomical parts or systems in Materia Medica Pura or Chronic Disease, hence it is justifiable to use the analogy.

The time related modalities as represented in Allen’s edition of TPB need to be referred to as work in progress; for genuine referencing, it is better to refer Hemple’s translation of TPB. This conclusion may be tested by further study of more remedies using the methodology adopted.

All the above conclusions drawn are an attempt to justify the changes made by the various authors who edited the original TPB, as none of the original stalwarts is currently alive, we felt it would be prudent to derive reasonable justification for the modifications they made. We accept that this may be looked upon as subjective, but we have been fact driven when deriving our conclusions.

Declaration of patient consent

Patient’s consent not required as there are no patients in this study.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

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