Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Filter by Categories
Book Review
Case Report
Case Series
Editorial
JISH Reviewers List
Original Article
Pilot Research Projects/Observational Studies
Policy Paper on Homoeopathic Education/Research/Clinical Training
Review Article
View/Download PDF

Translate this page into:

Original Article
4 (
3
); 67-74
doi:
10.25259/JISH_5_2021

Efficacy of homoeopathic medicines Zincum metallicum 6CH and Zincum metallicum 12CH on growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Bhindi) in a natural environment: A placebo-controlled study

Department of Anatomy, Homoeopathy University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Department of Physiology, Homoeopathy University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Department of UG Scholar, Homoeopathy University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Corresponding author: Dr. Sangeeta Jain, MD, PhD, Department of Anatomy, Homoeopathy University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. arihanthomoeo25@gmail.com
Licence
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

How to cite this article: Jain S, Kumawat RK, Gupta MR. Efficacy of homoeopathic medicines Zincum metallicum 6CH and Zincum metallicum 12CH on growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Bhindi) in a natural environment: A placebo-controlled study. J Intgr Stand Homoeopathy 2021;4:67-74.

Abstract

Objectives:

Homoeopathic dilutions are used to increase active principles in medicinal plants, detoxify plants, increase plant growth rate and fruit production, improve plant metabolism and control diseases. This controlled experimental prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effect of homoeopathic medicines Zincum metallicum 6CH and Z. metallicum 12CH on plant growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. in a natural environment. This study helps assess and establish the role of homoeopathy in propagating plant growth.

Materials and Methods:

A. esculentus seeds were cultivated in a designated area of the Homoeopathy University campus. Among these, 30 received Zincum 6CH (20 drops in 1 litre water), while 30 received Zincum 12CH (20 drops in 1 L water) and 30 received normal water. After 60 days, the entire plant was measured for height, pod length and productivity.

Results:

After 60 days, the number of fruits (plant productivity) in the groups receiving Zincum 6CH and 12CH was 335 and 267, respectively; in the group receiving normal water, the number of fruits was 159. The heights of plants receiving Zincum 6CH (M = 48.4 cm, SD = 2.65) and 12CH (M = 40.1 cm, SD = 2.39) were comparatively more than in plants receiving normal water (M = 31.6 cm SD = 2.26). The length of pods in plants receiving Zincum 6CH (M=13.3 cm, SD = 0.96) and 12CH (M = 10.3 cm, SD = 0.97) was comparatively more than in plants receiving normal water (M = 8.9 cm SD = 0.62).

Conclusion:

The application of potentised homoeopathic medicines Zincum 6CH and 12CH on A. esculentus demonstrated a beneficial result, as observed through significant differences in plant productivity, mean plant height and mean pod length among the experimental and control groups. Zincum 6CH showed more efficacy than 12CH in all aspects of growth.

Keywords

Agro-homoeopathy
Zincum metallicum 6CH
Zincum metallicum 12CH
Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)

INTRODUCTION

The extensive use of synthetic fertilisers in agriculture is causing environmental problems, such as damage to trace elements in the soil, release of harmful gases in the atmosphere, pollution of underground water and killing the beneficial microbes present in the soil.[1] We need to discover substitutes that will increase plant growth without compromising their quality and prevent environmental hazards. In homoeopathy, a substance produces morbid symptoms at high doses in healthy individuals, ameliorates the disease at ultra-low doses in a patient showing similar symptoms.[2] Dynamisation or potentisation (through trituration or succussion) is a unique aspect of the science of homoeopathy that, in comparison to simple dilution, even at higher levels, is more effective.[3] A high potency of a drug is considered the best antidote for the effects of the crude drug.[4] The use of homoeopathic preparations in agriculture has started recently by following the above mentioned principle of similia.[5]

Agro-homoeopathy builds the plant’s basic structure and gives it optimum health, thus reducing and sometimes even eliminating its susceptibility.[6,7]

Homoeopathic preparations are being used efficiently for increasing active principles in medicinal plants, detoxification from metals such as aluminium, phosphorus, sulphur and copper, increasing plant growth rate and productivity,[5] improving plant metabolism[8,9]and disease control.[10-12]

This controlled experimental prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effect of homoeopathic medicines Zincum metallicum 6CH and Z. metallicum 12CH on plant growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. in its natural environment in a study area where industrial wastes contaminate the soil. This study will help to assess and establish the role of homoeopathy in propagating plant growth.

A. esculentus

Okra (A. esculentus [L.]; common name lady finger) is an important vegetable crop widely grown in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions worldwide. This plant is a native of Africa, also known in many English speaking countries as lady’s fingers, Bhindi in India and bamia in Arabic countries. It is an annual plant and a popular vegetable in Indian kitchens. Okra is a very good source of dietary fibre, magnesium, manganese, potassium, Vitamin K, Vitamin C, folate, Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B6. Okra seed oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, which is essential for human nutrition.[13,14] Okra has health benefits in diabetes and some cancers. The mucilage from the immature pods is found to be suitable for industrial and medicinal applications.[13]

Zinc and its role in agriculture

Natural sources

Zinc exists naturally in rocks. The amount of zinc present in the soil depends on the parent materials of that soil. Plants take up zinc as the divalent ionic form (Zn2+) and chelated zinc.[15]

Role

Zinc (Zn) is one of the eight essential micronutrients. It is needed by plants in small amounts, but is crucial to plant development. In plants, zinc is a key constituent of many enzymes and proteins that are responsible for driving metabolic reactions in all crops. It plays an important role in a wide range of processes, such as growth hormone production and internode elongation.[16] Carbohydrate, protein and chlorophyll formation are significantly reduced in zinc-deficient plants. Therefore, a constant and continuous supply of zinc is needed for optimum growth and maximum yield.[15] Zinc has a positive role on the okra plant growth (height), pod length, number of fruits per plant[17,18] and duration of growth.[18]

Zinc deficiency symptoms in plants

  1. Chlorosis – yellowing of leaves; often interveinal; in some species, young leaves are the most affected, but in others, both old and new leaves are chlorotic. Zinc deficiency in plants can be observed by some symptoms[19] [Figure 1]:

  2. Necrotic spots – death of leaf tissue on areas of chlorosis

  3. Bronzing of leaves – chlorotic areas may turn bronze coloured

  4. Stunting of plants – small plants may occur as a result of reduced growth or because of reduced internode elongation

  5. Dwarf leaves (‘little leaf ’) – small leaves that often show chlorosis, necrotic spots or bronzing

  6. Malformed leaves – leaves are often narrower or have wavy margins.

Figure 1:: Zinc deficiency symptoms (a) mottled leaves (b) dwarf leaves.

Zinc toxicity symptoms in plants

Most crops are tolerant to high zinc levels in their tissue without any visible symptoms.[15] Zinc toxicity depends on pH, which controls the concentration of zinc in solution. High concentrations of zinc can cause toxicity in plants. The general symptoms are stunting of shoot, curling and rolling of young leaves, death of leaf tips and chlorosis.[20] The level of zinc in the soil above 150 mg kg-1 has been proved to be toxic.[21]

Zinc toxicity in the soil of Sanganer, Jaipur, Rajasthan

The Sanganer and Sitapura Industrial Areas are approximately 20 km away from Jaipur city. This area is famous for textile industries; Sanganer prints are famous all over India. Dye industries require a lot of water. The untreated wastewater is being discharged directly or indirectly into the main drainage network (the Dravyavati River) in the city. Use of this water for crop cultivation has affected the quality of the nearby land. Sanganer town comprises 635.5 km2; the urban area is 12.9 km2 and rural area is 622.6 km2.

The results[22] indicated that the application of industrial effluent/polluted water affected the physicochemical properties of soil [Table 1].

Table 1:: Analysis of soil sample from Sanganer Industrial Area for heavy metals/ micronutrients in parts per million (ppm).[22]
Sampling sites S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Permissible limits
Zn 1.21 1.56 1.29 1.77 1.72 0.6

Homoeopathy is defined as a system of therapeutics based on the ‘Law of Similars.’ It is a particular way of applying drugs to diseases according to the principle of ‘similia similibus curentur’ (let likes be treated by likes). The theories of vital force, chronic disease and drug dynamisation are integral parts of this science.

Agro-homoeopathy

The use of homoeopathic preparations in agriculture is fairly recent. Homoeopathic preparations are being used efficiently for increasing active principles in medicinal plants, plant detoxification for metals such as aluminium, sulphur and copper, increasing plant growth rate and productivity,[5] improving plant metabolism[8,9] and disease control.[10-12] The high potency of a drug is sometimes the best antidote for the effects of the crude drug.[4]

Hypothesis

  • Null hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference among the groups of A. esculentus plants receiving water (control Group C), those receiving Zincum 6CH (experimental Group A) and those receiving Zincum 12CH (experimental Group B).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Type of study and study design

Prospective experimental controlled parallel arm study.

Study site and arrangements for study groups

Dr. M.P.K. Homoeopathic Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Homoeopathy University, Saipura, Sanganer, Jaipur, Rajasthan. The university is located in the immediate vicinity of Sanganer Industrial Area. Okra seeds were sown directly in a field in a designated area of the university campus. The plants in three study groups (A, B and C) were grown in three plots, each of size 6 × 5 square metres; plots were 1 m apart with boundaries marked using double bricked walls. Seeds were sown in rows having a depth of 2–3 cm maintaining a distance of one metre from plant to plant and row to row in each plot.

Study duration

Sixty days.

Sample size

Ninety plants.

  1. Experimental group: Group A: 30 plants receiving Zincum 6CH

  2. Experimental group: Group B: 30 plants receiving Zincum 12CH

  3. Control group: Group C: 30 plants receiving only water.

Proposed intervention

  1. Experimental groups: 20 drops in 1 L of water

    • Group A: 30 plants of A. esculentus receiving Zincum 6CH

    • Group B: 30 plants of A. esculentus receiving Zincum 12CH. (Medicines were procured from a GMP certified pharmacy/manufacturer.)

  2. Control Group C: 30 plants of A. esculentus receiving normal water.

Dosage and repetition

  1. Experimental Group A: 20 drops of Zincum 6CH in 1 litre of water every alternate day

  2. Experimental Group B: 20 drops of Zincum 12CH in 1 litre of water every alternate day

  3. Control Group C: Normal water every day.

Data collection

After 60 days, the entire plant was measured for plant productivity (number of fruits), plant height and pod length.

Plan of analysis/statistical tools

Analysis of variance (ANOVA)[23]

RESULTS

A controlled interventional study was performed to evaluate effect of Zincum 6CH and Zincum 12CH on plant productivity, mean plant height and mean pod length of the A. esculentus plant. The results were analysed comparing the mean values and standard deviation within groups:

Germination time

[Table 2] shows the duration of germination in all the study groups.

Table 2:: Germination time.
Experimental Group A Experimental Group B Control Group C
Day Day 5 Day 6 Day 8

Productivity of plants

As shown in [Figure 2], the productivity (number of fruits per group) of plants in Groups A, B and C was 335, 267 and 159 fruits, respectively.

Figure 2:: Graphical representation of plant productivity (number of fruits per group).

Plant height (shoot length)

As shown in [Figures 3 and 4], the mean plant height in Groups A, B and C was 48.4 cm, 40.1 cm and 31.6 cm, respectively.

Figure 3:: Measurement of height of the grown Abelmoschus esculentus (okra plants).
Figure 4:: Graphical representation of mean plant height (shoot length in cm).

Pod length

As shown in [Figures 5-8], the mean pod length in Groups A, B and C was 13.3 cm, 10.3 cm and 8.9 cm, respectively.

Figure 5:: Pod length in experimental Groups A and B (the fruits were washed before being measured).
Figure 6:: Pod lengths in control Group C (the fruits were washed before being measured).
Figure 7:: Pod lengths in grown Abelmoschus esculentus plants.
Figure 8:: Graphical representation of mean pod length (cm).

Statistical analysis

Productivity

The F (2, 87) = 40.136, where the significance value is 0 (i.e. P = 0.003), which is below 0.05; therefore, there is a statistically significant difference in the productivity of A. esculentus plant among the control and experimental groups [Tables 3 and 4].

Table 3:: Statistical analysis of productivity of Abelmoschus esculentus plant in experimental Groups A and B and control Group C.
Description
Groups Count Sum Average Std. deviation Variance
Group A 30 335 11.2 2.7 7.454022989
Group B 30 267 8.9 2.5 6.3
Group C 30 159 5.3 2.4 5.872413793
Table 4:: Group statistics (analysis of variance).
Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
Between groups 525.156 2 262.578 40.136 0
Within group 569.167 87 6.542
Total 1094.322 89

A Tukey post hoc test [Table 5] revealed that plant productivity was statistically significantly higher after giving Zincum 6CH (Group A) (11.2 ± 2.7, P = 0.0003) and Zincum 12CH (Group B) (8.9 ± 2.5, P = 0) compared to the control Group C (water) (5.3 ± 2.4).

Table 5:: Post hoc tests.
Dependent variable: Productivity
Tukey HSD
(I)
VAR00002
(J)
VAR00002
Mean difference
(I-J)
Std. error Sig. 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Group A Group B 2.26667* 0.66041 0.003 0.6919 3.8414
Group C 5.86667* 0.66041 0 4.2919 7.4414
Group B Group A –2.26667* 0.66041 0.003 –3.8414 –0.6919
Group C 3.60000* 0.66041 0 2.0253 5.1747
Group C Group A –5.86667* 0.66041 0 –7.4414 –4.2919
Group B –3.60000* 0.66041 0 –5.1747 –2.0253
The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. There is a significant difference among the groups of plants of A. esculentus receiving water (control Group C), those receiving Zincum 6CH (experimental Group A) and those receiving Zincum 12CH (experimental Group B).

Plant height

There was a statistically significant difference [Tables 6 and 7] among groups as determined using one-way ANOVA; F (2, 87) = 343.35, P =0 (0<5). A Tukey post hoc test [Table 8] revealed that the plant height was statistically significantly higher after giving Zincum 6CH (Group A) (48.4 ± 2.65 cm, P = 0) and Zincum 12CH (Group B) (40.1 ± 2.39 cm, P = 0) compared to the control Group C (water) (31.6 ± 2.2 cm).

Table 6:: Statistical analysis of heights of Abelmoschus esculentus plants in experimental Groups A and B and control Group C.
Description
Groups Count Average Std. deviation Variance
Group A 30 48.4 2.652420278 7.277931034
Group B 30 40.1 2.391162043 5.914816092
Group C 30 31.6 2.26421436 5.303448276
Table 7:: Group statistics (analysis of variance).
Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
Between groups 4233.814 2 2116.907 343.353 0
Within group 536.39 87 6.165
Total 4770.203 89
Table 8:: Post hoc tests.
Dependent variable: Plant height
Tukey HSD
(I)
VAR00002
(J)
VAR00002
Mean difference
(I-J)
Std. error Sig. 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Group A Group B 8.29667* 0.64111 0 6.7679 9.8254
Group C 16.80000* 0.64111 0 15.2713 18.3287
Group B Group A –8.29667* 0.64111 0 –9.8254 –6.7679
Group C 8.50333* 0.64111 0 6.9746 10.0321
Group C Group A –16.80000* 0.64111 0 –18.3287 –15.2713
Group B –8.50333* 0.64111 0 –10.0321 –6.9746
The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. There are significant differences among the groups of plants of A. esculentus receiving water (control Group C), those receiving Zincum 6CH (experimental Group A) and those receiving Zincum 12CH (experimental Group B).

Pod length

There was a statistically significant difference [Tables 9 and 10] among the groups as determined with one-way ANOVA; F (2, 87) = 195.78, P = 0 (0<5). A Tukey post hoc test [Table 11] revealed that the pod length of A. esculentus plant was statistically significantly higher after giving Zincum 6CH (Group A) (13.3 ± 0.96 cm, P = 0) and Zincum 12CH (Group B) (10.3 ± 0.97 cm, P = 0) as compared to the control Group C (water) (8.9 ± 0.62 cm).

Table 9:: Statistical analysis of pod lengths in experimental Groups A and B and control Group C.
Description
Groups Count Average Std. deviation Variance
Group A 30 13.3 0.963494982 0.960333333
Group B 30 10.33 0.96863722 0.970574713
Group C 30 8.887 0.621686918 0.399816092
Table 10:: Group statistics (analysis of variance).
Sum of squars df Mean square F Sig.
Between groups 304.207 2 152.103 195.78 0
Within group 67.591 87 0.777
Total 371.798 89
Table 11:: Post hoc tests.
Dependent variable: Pod length
Tukey HSD
(I)
VAR00002
(J)
VAR00002
Mean difference (I-J) Std. error Sig. 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Group A Group B 2.97000* 0.22758 0 2.4273 3.5127
Group C 4.41667* 0.22758 0 3.874 4.9593
Group B Group A –2.97000* 0.22758 0 –3.5127 –2.4273
Group C 1.44667* 0.22758 0 0.904 1.9893
Group C Group A –4.41667* 0.22758 0 –4.9593 –3.874
Group B –1.44667* 0.22758 0 –1.9893 –0.904
The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level

Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. There is a significant difference among the groups of plants receiving water (control Group C), those receiving Zincum 6CH (experimental Group A) and those receiving Zincum 12CH (experimental Group B).

DISCUSSION

Homoeopathy is a medical science that has been effectively used to fight against human ailments. According to a Dutch Homoeopath, treatment of plants is similar to the treatment of humans.[5] The present controlled interventional study was performed to evaluate the effects of homoeopathic dilutions, Zincum 6CH and Zincum 12CH, on plant height, pod length and plant productivity in A. esculentus. A positive effect was seen on plant height (shoot), plant productivity (number of fruits) and mean pod length. These findings correlate with those of several previous studies conducted on the use of potentised homoeopathic medicines in plants.

Homoeopathic drug (zinc sulphate) exhibited growth promotion at higher potency (6X) and growth inhibition at lower potencies (×1–×5) on Bacopa monnieri.[24]

A study aimed at evaluating the influence of homoeopathic preparations Alumina 6CH, Alumina 12CH, Calcarea carbonica 6CH and C. carbonica 12CH on the germination and vigour of lettuce seeds subjected to toxic levels of aluminium in paper solution concluded that all the abovementioned preparations had a significant effect on the vigour of lettuce seeds subjected to stress conditions.[25]

CONCLUSION

Agro-homeopathy is a chemical less and non-toxic method for crop cultivation. This may offer a suitable method for anti-doting the effects of high levels of heavy metals on plant growth. In the present study, the application of potentised homoeopathic medicine Zincum 6CH and 12CH on A. esculentus demonstrated a beneficial result by increasing plant height, plant productivity and pod length. Moreover, the lower dilution (6CH) showed more effectiveness in various aspects of growth of A. esculentus than higher dilution (12CH).

Agro-homoeopathy may be a good choice in every aspect of agriculture. For proper application of homoeopathic drugs in agriculture, this avenue needs to be explored with further studies on larger samples for confirmatory evidence, which will help in furthering homoeopathic science in addition to offering a solution for growing concerns relating to growing crops in polluted areas.

Declaration of patient consent

Patient’s consent not required as there are no patients in this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. . Chemical Fertilizers. . Available from: https://www.thefactfactor.com/facts/purescience/biology/chemical-fertilizers/2225 [Last accessed on 2021 Apr 21]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. . Agrohomeopathy: New practice in agriculture from seed germination to field trial. In: Agrotechnology. Longdom 5th International Conference on Agriculture and Horticulture, 2016 June 27-29, Cape Town, South Africa. Belgium: Longdom; . p. 39.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. , . Homoeopathy in agriculture In: , , eds. Building Organic Bridges, at the Organic World Congress 2014 Proceedings of the 4th ISOFAR Scientific Conference, 2014 Oct 13-15. . p. 667-70.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. . Homeopathy for Plants-a Practical Guide for Indoor, Balcony and Garden Plants with Tips on Dosage, use and Choice of Potency (3rd ed). Kandern, Germany: Narayan Verlag; .
    [Google Scholar]
  5. , , , , . Agrohomeopathy: An emerging field of agriculture for higher crop productivity and protection of plants against various stress conditions. IJRAR. 2018;5:52-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Agrohomeopathy: Natural Alterative Treatment for Plants and Crops. . Available from: http://www.homeopathicassociates.com/agro-homeopathy-an-alternative-for-agriculture [Last accessed on 2018 Feb 20]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. . Agro-Homeopathy-An Alternative for Agriculture. . Available from: http://www.hpathy/homeopathy-papers/agro-homeopathy-analternative-for-agriculture [Last accessed on 2018 Nov 11]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. , , , . Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seeds poisoned with the same substance. Br J Homeopath. 1997;86:86-9.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. , , , . Interaction among Co2 assimilation and minutes post-treatment of Sphagneticola trilobata with Apis mellifica 6CH. Cult Homeopatica Arch Esc Homeopatia. 2006;16:48.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. , , , , . Homoeopathic and pharmacopeia solutions as inhibitors of tobacco mosaic virus. Indian Phytopath. 1969;22:188-93.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. . Effect for certain homoeopathic medicines on fungal growth and conidial germination. Indian Phytopathol. 1980;33:620-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. , . Control of fruit not caused by Fusarium roseum with homoeopathic solutions. Indian Phytopathol. 1983;36:356-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. , . Nutrient profile, bioactive components, and functional properties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L)) In: , , eds. Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs. Oxford: Academic Press; . p. 363-410.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. , , . Aloe, chia, flaxseed, okra, psyllium seed, quince seed and tamarind gums In: , , eds. Industrial Gums-Polysaccharides and their Derivatives (3rd ed). West Lafayette, Indiana: Elsevier; .
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. , , , . Zinc for Crop Production. . Available from: http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/nutrient-management/micronutrients/zinc-for-crop-production [Last accessed on 2021 Mar 20]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Zinc in Plants-A Key Constituent. . Available from: https://www.smart-fertilizer.com/articles/zinc-in-plants [Last accessed on 2021 Mar 20]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. , , , , . Effect of zinc on growth, yield and quality of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2018;7:2519-21.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. , , , , , . Effect of zinc and boron on growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Asian J Adv Agric Res. 2020;12:41-7.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. . Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition (2nd ed). Brussels, Belgium: International Zinc Association; .
    [Google Scholar]
  20. , . Effect of metal toxicity on plant growth and metabolism: I. Zinc. Agronomie. 2003;23:3-11.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. . Booker Tropical Soil Manual: A Handbook for Soil Survey and Agricultural Land Evaluation in the Tropics and Subtropics In: Harlow. England: Longman Scientific and Technical; .
    [Google Scholar]
  22. , , . Influence of industrial effluent on physico-chemical properties of soil at Sanganer industrial area, Jaipur, Rajasthan. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci. 2016;5:1-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. . Analysis of variance: The fundamental concepts. J Man Manip Ther. 2009;17:27-38.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. , , , , , . Dose-dependent effect of homoeopathic drug Zinc sulphate on plant growth using Bacopa monnieri as model system. Indian J Res Heath. 2014;8:19-23.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. , , , . Germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) pelleted with homeopathic preparations Alumina and Calcarea carbonica subjected to toxic levels of aluminum. Int J High Dilution Res. 2010;9:138-46.
    [Google Scholar]
Show Sections